Motor-tachometer speed control

Posted on May 31, 2012

The tachometer, on the same shaft as the dc motor, is simply a generator. It gives a dc output voltage proportional to the speed of the motor. A summing amplifier, Al, controls its output so that the tachometer voltage equals the input voltage, but of opposite sign. With current drive to the motor, phase lag to the tachometer is 90°, before the second order effects come in. Compensation on Al is designed to give less than 90° phase shift over the range of frequencies where the servo loop goes through unity gain. Should response time be of less concern, a power op amp could be substituted for Al to drive the motor directly.

Motor-tachometer speed control
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Lowering break frequencies of the compensation would, of course, be necessary. The circuit could also be used as a position servo. All that is needed is a voltage indicating the sense and magnitude of the motor shaft displacement from a desired position. This error signal is connected to the input, and the servo works to make it zero. The tachometer is still required to develop a phase-correcting rate signal because the error signal lags the motor drive by 180°.

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